Narrative Language Measures (NLM) subtest
The CUBED assesses a variety of literacy skills in the context of narratives, which are highly relevant for school assessment and instruction. The Narrative Language Measures (NLM) includes two measures, the NLM Listening and the NLM Reading. The NLM Listening and NLM Reading use personal-themed narratives to assess oral language, reading comprehension, and decoding fluency. In the NLM, students are asked to listen to or read a brief story, and then retell that story to the examiner. Administration and scoring is done in real-time. To the extent possible, these levels are based on developmental patterns of, and curriculum expectations for narrative structure, language complexity, and decoding skills. For benchmark assessments, students are administered the NLM grade level that corresponds with their grade. For progress monitoring, any grade level can be administered to any student according to current level of performance.