CUBED-3 Narrative Language Measures (NLM)
The CUBED-3 includes the Narrative Language Measures (NLM) subtests, which assess pre-k through eighth grade students’ abilities to understand and use both oral and written academic language. The NLM subtests, NLM Listening and NLM Reading, were designed to accurately identify students whose academic language places them at risk for experiencing other academic problems. The NLM also directly informs comprehension instruction and meets all of the psychometric requirements of a GOM, filling a major gap found in most reading general outcome measures.
The NLM subtests of the CUBED-3 have three major purposes:
- Benchmark Screening. NLM Benchmark passages are to be used for universal screening three times per year, which is common in multi-tiered systems of supports (MTSS). For universal screening purposes, the academic language of all students within a district, school, or grade level should be assessed.
- Progress Monitoring. The NLM Listening and NLM Reading were also designed to monitor students’ language growth over time. Language progress monitoring helps educators detect whether adequate progress is being made, and to identify what type of instructional modifications are necessary.
- Intervention Planning. The NLM subtests can serve as a basis for intervention planning. The results can provide information on the integration of receptive and expressive language, reading fluency, reading comprehension, use of complex linguistic structures, and the ability to infer the meaning of complex vocabulary in a standardized, efficient, and valid manner.