Research Studies 


  • Petersen, D. B., & Spencer, T. D. (2012). The Narrative Language Measures: Tools for language screening, progress monitoring, and intervention planning. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 19(4), 119-129.

  • Petersen, D. B. & Gillam, R. B. (2013). Predicting reading ability for bilingual Latino children using dynamic assessment. Journal of Learning Disabilities. DOI: 10.1177/0022219413486930.

  • Petersen, D. B., Allen, M. M., Ukrainetz, T., & Spencer, T. D. (2014). Predicting reading difficulty in first grade using dynamic assessment of decoding in early kindergarten: A large-scale longitudinal study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Online First, 1-16.

  • Sellars, T. P., Spencer, T. D., Adams, J. L., & Petersen, D. B., (2016). Curriculum based measurement of language: An examination of the reliability and validity of the Narrative Language Measures (NLM). Manuscript in preparation.

  • Spencer, T. D., Thompson, M., Petersen, D. B., & Restrepo, M. A., (2016). Evidence of validity and reliability of the English and Spanish Narrative Language Measures (NLM) for Preschoolers. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Petersen, D. B., Chanthongthip, H., Ukrainetz, T. A., Spencer, T. D., & Steeve, R. W. (2016). Dynamic assessment of narratives: Efficient, accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual students. Submitted for publication.

  • Petersen, D. B., Konishi, A., Spencer, T. D., & Steeve, R. (2016). Using Parallel Progress Monitoring Measures to Examine the Construct Equivalency of Oral Language comprehension and Reading Comprehension. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Zitting, L., Spencer, T. D., Petersen, D. B., Bohan, K., & Persinger, L. (2016). Technical adequacy of the Predictive Early Assessment of Reading and Language (PEARL). Manuscript in preparation.



  • Petersen, D. B., Gillam, S. L., Spencer, T. D., & Gillam, R. B. (2010). The effects of literate narrative intervention on children with neurologically based language impairments: An early stage study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53, 961-981.

  • Spencer, T. D., & Slocum, T. A. (2010). The effect of a narrative intervention on story retelling and personal story generation skills of preschoolers with risk factors and narrative language delays. Journal of Early Intervention, 32(3), 178-199.

  • Spencer, T. D., Kajian, M., Petersen, D. B., & Bilyk, N. (2013). Effects of an individualized narrative intervention on children’s storytelling and comprehension skills. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(3), 243-269.

  • Petersen, D. B., Brown, C. L., Ukrainetz, T. A., DeGeorge, C., Spencer, T. D., & Zebre, J. (2014). Systematic individualized narrative intervention on the personal narratives of children with autism. Language, Speech, Hearing Services in Schools, 45, 67-86.

  • Spencer, T. D., Petersen, D. B., & Adams, J. L. (2015). Tier 2 language intervention for diverse preschoolers: An early stage randomized control group study following an analysis of response to intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology24, 619-636.

  • Petersen, D. B., Thompson, B. E., Guiberson, M., & Spencer, T. D. (2015). Cross-linguistic interactions from L2 to L1 as the result of individualized narrative language intervention with children with and without language impairment. Online First in Applied Psycholinguistics.

  • Spencer, T. D.,Petersen, D. B., Slocum, T. A., & Allen, M. M. (2015). Large group narrative intervention in Head Start classrooms: Implications for response to intervention. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 13(2),196-217.

  • Weddle, S. A., Spencer, T. D., Kajian, M., & Petersen, D. B. (2016). An examination of a multi-tiered system of language support for culturally and linguistically diverse preschoolers: Implications for early and accurate identification. School Psychology Review, 45(1), 109-131.

  • Spencer, T. D., Weddle, S. A., Petersen, D. B., & Adams, J. A. (2016). Multi-tiered narrative intervention for preschoolers: A Head Start implementation study. Submitted for publication.

  • Spencer, T. D., Petersen, D. B., Gutierrez-Arvizu, M. N., Restrepo, M. A., & Thompson, M. (2016). The effect of a Spanish and English narrative intervention on the language skills of young dual language learners. Submitted for publication.

  • Petersen, D. B., Staskowski, M., & Spencer, T. D. (2016). The effect of tiered narrative intervention on preschoolers’ narrative and expository language. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Spencer T. D., Moran, M. K., Petersen, D. B., Smith, H. (2016). Narratives bridge oral and written language. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Spencer, T. D., Gardner, C., & Petersen, D. B. (2016). The effect of explicit vocabulary instruction embedded in narrative intervention on first graders’ academically-related language Skills. Manuscript in preparation.

Other Related Publications

  • Spencer, T. D., & Petersen, D. B. (2010). Narrative intervention for preschool classes. Utah Special Educator, 32(4), 26-29.

  • Petersen, D. B. (2011). A systematic review of narrative-based language intervention with children who have language impairment. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 32(4), 207-220.

  • Petersen, D. B., & Spencer, T. D. (2014). Narrative assessment and intervention: A clinical tutorial on extending explicit language instruction and progress monitoring to all students. Perspectives on Communication Disorders and Sciences in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations, 21, 5-21.

  • Castilla, A., Petersen, D. B., Spencer, T. D., Hammer, K. (2015). Narrative development in monolingual preschool Spanish-speaking children. Early Education and Development, 0, 1-21.

  • Petersen, D. B., & Spencer, T. D. (2016) Using narrative intervention to accelerate canonical story grammar and complex language growth in culturally diverse preschoolers. Topics in Language Disorders, 36, 6-19.